wtorek, 31 stycznia

Najlepsze

Carlists – Spanish monarchists who fought against the Crown. Part I – Carlist wars.
Historia, Najlepsze

Carlists – Spanish monarchists who fought against the Crown. Part I – Carlist wars.

1872-1876 was the period of civil war in Spain. The liberal government was initially monarchist, then republican, then again monarchist. And who were the rebels? They were led by a relatively young prince, who wanted to become the new king of Spain. The fact that his cousin already held this position didn’t matter, because for this prince and his supporters known as Carlists, he was the only legitimate person to rule over his fatherland. They were very determined to do so, because it was the third time already when Carlists challenged the government in Madrid. Dispute over the Salic law Year 1833 was remembered as the year when king Ferdinand VII Bourbon died. If he had had a son, the late ruler would have probably been remembered just as a king who ruled during the Napoleoni...
Should we counter misinformation?
Najlepsze, Społeczeństwo, Technologie, Wydarzenia

Should we counter misinformation?

Misinformation has been a vast and challenging issue throughout recent years, with the potential threat of it occurring only increasing. The impact of misleading information has been raised into the public attention especially in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, with numerous hazardous unscientific practices and conspiracy theories gaining track. Additionally, it is not unknown that deception can be used for malicious purposes – both by governments and individuals. Authoritarian states such as Russia and China utilised disinformation related to COVID-19 in order to achieve political gains, as described by the Center for European Policy Analysis (Dubow, Lucas, and Morris, 2021). Conclusively, it seems the discussion on the topic is urgent and needed, if not inevitable. Some ma...
Model United Nations – introduction and interview with Nathalie Ferko, MUN veteran
Najlepsze, Społeczeństwo

Model United Nations – introduction and interview with Nathalie Ferko, MUN veteran

Many people say that teenagers are only messing around and doing nothing good for the world. However, some could be surprised about the fact that there are quite a few young people actively involved in attending MUNs – the Model United Nations conferences. What are MUNs? Aforementioned event is a big gathering arranged, as the name suggests, to reflect the pattern of the broadly known United Nations organization. What’s interesting is that people attending this conference are not only college students but also high school and sometimes even elementary school teenagers. Generally speaking, the MUNs are the simulations of the real UN meetings where the role of the attending delegates is to seek compromises and develop new ideas about the ongoing problems all around the world. ...
Monarchism in interwar Bavaria
Historia, Najlepsze

Monarchism in interwar Bavaria

World War I (1914-1918) and the first following years changed the world in numerous ways. One of the most remarkable ones was the fall of German monarchies and creation of the republic. But whenever such transformations happen, there are always some who oppose them. The dissolution of Kingdom of Bavaria Bavaria was the first German state to abolish its monarchy. It was done in the midst of chaos present in München, incomparable to what was experienced in all other German cities. The king Ludwig III was completely surprised - he was informed about the revolution by a pedestrian while he was having his afternoon walk. He never formally abdicated, but “released his citizens from the oath of loyalty to the throne”. On 8th of November 1918 the People’s State of Bavaria was pr...
The Creation of the Unabomber
Najlepsze, Nauka, Społeczeństwo, Uncategorized

The Creation of the Unabomber

The University and Airline Bomber, or as deemed by the media - Unabomber, severely injured nearly two dozen people, and caused the painful deaths of three individuals. He had the FBI wildly, and fruitlessly, chasing him for nearly 17 years, and the public shaking in fear for the same amount of time. Yet, according to him, he only did these heinous acts to warn the public, to spread his manifesto, claiming in it that technology is the doom of man, it seems that he was the doom in this case. Who’s the face behind the killings? However, what was the reason for this certified genius of a mathematics professor to snap and turn violent? Could this abrupt change of behaviour be blamed on his untreated schizophrenia mixed with rough childhood experiences, or was there more to the pi...
The ethics of economic sanctions
Historia, Najlepsze, Społeczeństwo

The ethics of economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are penalties applied by one or more states on a target in order to force it to change its behavior or to punish it for certain behavior. The most notable examples of economic sanctions may be that imposed on Cuba and, most recently, Russia. Even though sanctions have many positives – they allow states to not engage militarily and yet to put pressure on the target to change its behavior – there are also concerns raised by many organizations that in certain situations sanctions may be unethical and should not be enforced. This is especially important in the light of the recent Russian invasion of Ukraine which led many people to call for sanctions against Russia. Collective and comprehensive sanctions Most commonly the target of the criticism is comprehensi...
Wojna Rosyjsko-Ukraińska – co się dzieje, jak pomóc?
Historia, Najlepsze

Wojna Rosyjsko-Ukraińska – co się dzieje, jak pomóc?

Konflikt rosyjsko-ukraiński rozpoczął się w lutym 2014 r., kiedy to Rosja zaatakowała Krym i Donbas, rozpoczynając wojnę hybrydową pomiędzy tymi krajami. Kraj ten również od jakiegoś czasu wymaga, aby Ukraina nigdy nie miała możliwości dołączenia do NATO oraz jego działania zostały ograniczone w rejonach Europy Wschodniej. Putin wierzy, że stworzenie odrębnego państwa Ukrainy nie ma podstawy w historii, gdyż było ono wcześniej częścią ZSRR. Geneza wojny 21 lutego 2022 r., Putin podpisał deklarację, uznając niepodległość i suwerenność dwóch separastycznych republik: Donieckiej i Ługańskiej Republiki Ludowej. Prezydent Ukrainy wprowadził stan wojenny – każdy mężczyzna od 18 do 60 roku życia ma obowiązek zostać w kraju. Ukraina oficjalnie zerwała stosunku dyplomatyczne z Rosją. ...
Michael I – Romanian king who fought radical ideologies
Historia, Najlepsze

Michael I – Romanian king who fought radical ideologies

Michael Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, in Romania known as Mihai I became the king of his homeland in 1940. It wasn’t his first time – between 1927 and 1930 he held the same title, but due to his age (5 years old on the day of coronation) he didn’t rule. The regents didn’t become popular and in 1930 Michael’s father Carol returned from Paris to become the ruler. Carol II was an ambitious person who wanted to increase his political power and influence. He was also considered to be a supporter of Western democracies. The far-right Garda le Fier (Iron Guard) and pro-German politicians opposed this policy. When pro-Axis Ion Antonescu became a Prime Minister he decided to secure his rule in Romania and forced Carol to abdicate. On 6th September 1940 19-years-old Michael became a king agai...
The new Concorde?
Najlepsze, Technologie

The new Concorde?

Nearly 20 years ago, the world saw the retirement of the first supersonic passenger aircraft. The Concorde featured many flaws such as an ear bursting din, inefficient engines and over priced tickets, simply the Concorde was an economical and environmental disaster. But now, two decades later, numerous startups are forming up to build a new supersonic passenger aircraft and Boom seems to be the most promising one so far. Boom is the first manufacturer to actually provide a 1:3 scale prototype, named the XB1. The prototype is meant to exhibit the shape, features and quirks of the new subsonic jet. Faster than the Fastest, Better than the Best Air travel has stayed consistent for the past 50 years, regarding the speed of aircraft flown. Most “Modern Day” passenger planes fly a...
German Romanticism in visual arts
Najlepsze, Sztuka

German Romanticism in visual arts

German Romanticism was an intellectual movement among German-speaking countries and generally German-speaking communities in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Its impact is reflected in aesthetics and literature. Compared to another pioneering European movement – English Romanticism, German Romanticism valued humor and beauty as well as wisdom. Focus on nature The object of focus at the time was nature and the spiritual aspects of it. Visual artists explored landscape psychization, portraying their motherlands. The role of painters was to contemplate the ethereal, almost psychic character of the environment, and translate it into art. The compositions varied for a modern viewer, some had a surrealistic feel into them, while others had more of an impressionist take. T...