wtorek, 31 stycznia

Historia

Carlists – Spanish monarchists who fought against the Crown. Part I – Carlist wars.
Historia, Najlepsze

Carlists – Spanish monarchists who fought against the Crown. Part I – Carlist wars.

1872-1876 was the period of civil war in Spain. The liberal government was initially monarchist, then republican, then again monarchist. And who were the rebels? They were led by a relatively young prince, who wanted to become the new king of Spain. The fact that his cousin already held this position didn’t matter, because for this prince and his supporters known as Carlists, he was the only legitimate person to rule over his fatherland. They were very determined to do so, because it was the third time already when Carlists challenged the government in Madrid. Dispute over the Salic law Year 1833 was remembered as the year when king Ferdinand VII Bourbon died. If he had had a son, the late ruler would have probably been remembered just as a king who ruled during the Napoleoni...
The Pilots of the Six-Day War
Historia

The Pilots of the Six-Day War

Almost 60 years ago Egypt had closed the strait of Tiran, essentially backing Israel into a corner. Following these escalations, Israel had to hit back. Operation Focus On the early morning of the 5th of June 1967, at around 07:45am, Israeli fighter pilots carried out Operation Focus, a series of bombing strikes against the Egyptian Air Force. It resulted in the Egyptian Air Force suffering devastating losses, by noon the Egyptian Air Force and its allies Jordan and Syria were almost completely immobilized. Some losses were estimated to be around 18 airfields and up to 450 aircraft. Three waves of attacks Operation Focus was made up of three waves. The first of which carried out attacks on 11 bases, catching the majority of the Egyptian Air Force on the ground. Th...
Monarchism in interwar Bavaria
Historia, Najlepsze

Monarchism in interwar Bavaria

World War I (1914-1918) and the first following years changed the world in numerous ways. One of the most remarkable ones was the fall of German monarchies and creation of the republic. But whenever such transformations happen, there are always some who oppose them. The dissolution of Kingdom of Bavaria Bavaria was the first German state to abolish its monarchy. It was done in the midst of chaos present in München, incomparable to what was experienced in all other German cities. The king Ludwig III was completely surprised - he was informed about the revolution by a pedestrian while he was having his afternoon walk. He never formally abdicated, but “released his citizens from the oath of loyalty to the throne”. On 8th of November 1918 the People’s State of Bavaria was pr...
The ethics of economic sanctions
Historia, Najlepsze, Społeczeństwo

The ethics of economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are penalties applied by one or more states on a target in order to force it to change its behavior or to punish it for certain behavior. The most notable examples of economic sanctions may be that imposed on Cuba and, most recently, Russia. Even though sanctions have many positives – they allow states to not engage militarily and yet to put pressure on the target to change its behavior – there are also concerns raised by many organizations that in certain situations sanctions may be unethical and should not be enforced. This is especially important in the light of the recent Russian invasion of Ukraine which led many people to call for sanctions against Russia. Collective and comprehensive sanctions Most commonly the target of the criticism is comprehensi...
Wojna Rosyjsko-Ukraińska – co się dzieje, jak pomóc?
Historia, Najlepsze

Wojna Rosyjsko-Ukraińska – co się dzieje, jak pomóc?

Konflikt rosyjsko-ukraiński rozpoczął się w lutym 2014 r., kiedy to Rosja zaatakowała Krym i Donbas, rozpoczynając wojnę hybrydową pomiędzy tymi krajami. Kraj ten również od jakiegoś czasu wymaga, aby Ukraina nigdy nie miała możliwości dołączenia do NATO oraz jego działania zostały ograniczone w rejonach Europy Wschodniej. Putin wierzy, że stworzenie odrębnego państwa Ukrainy nie ma podstawy w historii, gdyż było ono wcześniej częścią ZSRR. Geneza wojny 21 lutego 2022 r., Putin podpisał deklarację, uznając niepodległość i suwerenność dwóch separastycznych republik: Donieckiej i Ługańskiej Republiki Ludowej. Prezydent Ukrainy wprowadził stan wojenny – każdy mężczyzna od 18 do 60 roku życia ma obowiązek zostać w kraju. Ukraina oficjalnie zerwała stosunku dyplomatyczne z Rosją. ...
Michael I – Romanian king who fought radical ideologies
Historia, Najlepsze

Michael I – Romanian king who fought radical ideologies

Michael Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, in Romania known as Mihai I became the king of his homeland in 1940. It wasn’t his first time – between 1927 and 1930 he held the same title, but due to his age (5 years old on the day of coronation) he didn’t rule. The regents didn’t become popular and in 1930 Michael’s father Carol returned from Paris to become the ruler. Carol II was an ambitious person who wanted to increase his political power and influence. He was also considered to be a supporter of Western democracies. The far-right Garda le Fier (Iron Guard) and pro-German politicians opposed this policy. When pro-Axis Ion Antonescu became a Prime Minister he decided to secure his rule in Romania and forced Carol to abdicate. On 6th September 1940 19-years-old Michael became a king agai...
Maximilien Robespierre and the French Revolution
Historia, Najlepsze

Maximilien Robespierre and the French Revolution

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman, best known for his incredible influence on the French Revolution. Maximilien Robespierre is best known as the principal figure behind the Reign of Terror, a period of radical revolutionary activity in France during which thousands were executed for “crimes against liberty”. Involvement in the Revolution Robespierre’s political affiliations varied - he was part of the Jacobin Club, the National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety, all of which played a pivotal role in French politics. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he advocated for universal manhood suffrage and the elimination of both clergy celibacy and slavery. In 1791, Robespierre became a vocal advocate for...
Christmas Truce 1914
Historia, Najlepsze

Christmas Truce 1914

  In the recent days, Christmas is a very special day for plenty of reasons. Today, it's something more than a Christian celebration of Jesus's birth, in the mass culture it's a day when people forget their disputes, grudges and negative emotions. Instead, they try to be friendly to everyone. But how far this can go? 107 years ago whole Europe saw the true strength of Christmas spirit and something unbelievable happened – during one of the bloodiest wars ever, soldiers from two sides stopped fighting and celebrated this day together. Background On 28th of August 1914 the Great War began. Austro-Hungarian attack on Serbia turned into conflict which engaged all of contemporary Great Powers. Both sides hoped for a quick victory – for example Germans followed the Schlieffen's Plan w...
Od potęgi do kryzysu, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów w II połowie XVII wieku
Historia, Najlepsze

Od potęgi do kryzysu, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów w II połowie XVII wieku

Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów powstała w 1569 roku na mocy Unii Lubelskiej łącząc Koronę Polską i Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie. Była jednym z większych państw europejskich, zarówno pod względem powierzchni, jak i liczby ludności. XVII wiek był dla Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów okresem wielu konfliktów zbrojnych, ale także kryzysów politycznych, gospodarczych i społecznych, które szczególnie nasiliły się w drugiej połowie tego stulecia. Europa i Polska w XVII wieku XVII wiek to okres, w którym w Europie m.in. następował powolny koniec potęgi Hiszpanii, umacniała się pozycja Francji i Brandenburgii, rosła potęga Szwecji, a z południa następowała ekspansja turecka. Pierwsza połowa XVII wieku w Europie to czasy wojny trzydziestoletniej, w którą zaangażowane były prawie wszystkie liczące ...
The history of Italian influence on cuisine in Poland
Historia, Najlepsze

The history of Italian influence on cuisine in Poland

Italy and Poland may not be close to each other geographically, but distances are no limits for good tastes. The beginning of the history of Italian food in Poland is hard to determine. Most people, when asked, will with no hesitation say one name: Bona Sforza. This Polish queen, wife of Sigismund I the Old, was indeed Italian – Milanian to be exact. Before moving to Poland to become a queen, she lived as a princess in the South of Italy – in Bari. She was a very educated woman, with big ambitions, so upon coming to Poland, she quickly started to engage in all kinds of intrigues and businesses. Her great success in managing property brought her unprecedented wealth, making her, arguably, the richest woman in Polish history. Italian lifestyle of Bona Sforza Bona wasn’t ver...